Nigeria - Historical Facts

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NIGERIA - Historical Facts

 

Nigeria

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                    1 Jan 1900 - 1 Oct 1960 
[Flag of Nigeria]
                         Adopted 1 Oct 1960
Map of Nigeria
Hear National Anthem
"Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"
Text of National Anthem
1978
Constitution
 (May 1999)

30 Jun 1849                Bight of Biafra British protectorate
 1 Feb 1852                Bight of Benin British protectorate
 6 Aug 1861                Bights of Biafra and Benin British protectorate
 6 Aug 1861                Lagos a British colony.
1885 - 1893                Oil Rivers protectorate
 5 Jun 1885 - 10 Jul 1886  Niger Districts Protectorate (under United African Company).
10 Jul 1886 -  9 Aug 1899  Niger River Delta protectorate (under Royal Niger Company).
 1 Jan 1900                British Nigerian colonies.
 1 Jan 1900                Protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria.
16 Feb 1906                Lagos incorporated into the Southern Nigeria Protectorate.
 1 Jan 1914                Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria
 1 Oct 1954                Federation of Nigeria (autonomous).
 1 Oct 1960                Independence from Britain (Nigeria).
 1 Oct 1963                Federal Republic of Nigeria
24 May 1966                Republic of Nigeria
31 Aug 1966                Federal Republic of Nigeria
30 May 1967                Secession of Biafra (not internationally recognized).
12 Jan 1970                Reintegration of Biafra.

Northern Nigeria

 5 Jun 1885                Niger Districts Protectorate (under United African Company).
10 Jul 1886 -  9 Aug 1899  Niger River Delta protectorate (under Royal Niger Company).
 9 Aug 1899                Becomes the British Northern Nigeria protectorate
                             (effective 1 Jan 1900).
 1 Jan 1914                Part of British Nigeria Colony and protectorate as
                             northern provinces.
1962                       Incorporated into Nigeria.

Director
 5 Jun 1885 - 10 Jul 1886  Sir George Goldie
Governors
10 Jul 1886 - 25 Feb 1895  Baron Aberdare
25 Feb 1895 -  1 Jan 1900  Sir George Goldie
High commissioners
 1 Jan 1900 - Nov 1906     Frederick John Dealtry Lugard     (b. 1858 - d. 1945)
Nov 1906 - Apr 1907        Sir William Wallace (acting)
Apr 1907 - 1908            Edouard Percy Cranwill Girouard   (b. 1867 - d. 1932)
Governors
1908 - 28 Sep 1909         Edouard Percy Cranwill Girouard   (s.a.)
28 Sep 1909 - 1912         Henry Hesketh Joudou Bell         (b. 1864 - d. 1952)
1912 -  1 Jan 1914         Frederick John Dealtry Lugard     (s.a.)

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Southern Nigeria
[Oil Rivers Protectorate]
                        1885 - 27 Aug 1899
30 Jun 1849                Bight of Biafra British protectorate.
 1 Feb 1852                Bight of Benin British protectorate.
 6 Aug 1861                Bights of Biafra and Benin a united British protectorate.
                             with Lagos as a British colony.
 5 Jun 1885                British Oil Rivers protectorate over Brass, Bonny, Opobo,
                             Aobh, and Old Calabar (excluding Lagos).
13 May 1893                Renamed Niger Coast Protectorate
27 Aug 1899                Becomes the British Southern Nigeria protectorate 
                             (effective 1 Jan 1900).
16 Feb 1906                Lagos joined to Southern Nigeria Protectorate.
 1 Jan 1914                Part of British Nigeria Colony and Protectorate 
                             as Southern provinces.

Consuls of the Bight of Benin
May 1852 - 1853            Louis Fraser
1853 - Apr 1859            Benjamin Campbell
Apr 1859 - 1860            George Brand
1860 - Jan 1861            Henry Hand
Jan 1861 - May 1861        Henry Grant Foote
May 1861 - 6 Aug 1861      William McCoskry (acting)
Consuls of the Bight of Biafra (from 6 Aug 1861, Bights of Biafra and Benin)
30 Jun 1849 - 10 Jun 1854  John Beecroft
10 Jun 1854 - 1855         James Lynslager (acting)
1855 - 1861                Thomas Joseph Hutchinson
1861 - Dec 1864            Richard Francis Burton
Dec 1864 - 1873            Charles Livingstone
1873 - 1878                George Hartley
1878 - 13 Sep 1879         David Hopkins
13 Sep 1879 -  5 Jun 1885  Edward Hyde Hewett
Consuls-general of Oil Rivers
 5 Jun 1885 -  1 Jan 1891  Edward Hyde Hewett
 1 Jan 1891 -  3 Aug 1891  Synge (acting)
Commissioners of Oil Rivers (to 3 Aug 1891 then of Niger Delta)
 3 Aug 1891 - 1896         Claude Maxwell MacDonald               (b. 1852 - d. 1915)
                            (from 1892, Sir Claude Maxwell MacDonald)
1893 - 13 May 1893         Ralph Denham Rayment Moor  (1st time)  (b. 1860 - d. 1909)
                            (acting for MacDonald) 
1896 - Nov 1896            Ralph Denham Rayment Moor  (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Nov 1896 - 4 Jan 1897      Phillips (acting)
 4 Jan 1897 -  1 Jan 1900  Ralph Denham Rayment Moor (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                            (from 1897, Sir Ralph Denham Rayment Moore)
High commissioners of Southern Nigeria
 1 Jan 1900 - 1900         Ralph Denham Rayment Moor  (1st time)  (s.a.)
1900                       Henry Gallwey  (acting)
1900 - Aug 1904            Ralph Denham Rayment Moor  (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Aug 1904 - 28 Feb 1906     Sir Walter Egerton                     (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
Governors
28 Feb 1906 - 1907         Sir Walter Egerton   (1st time)        (s.a.)
1907                       James Thorburn (acting)
1907 - 1912                Sir Walter Egerton   (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1912 -  1 Jan 1914         Frederick John Dealtry Lugard          (s.a.)

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Niger Rivers District

1879                      United African Company (U.A.C.) formed to exploit resources in 
                            the Niger Rivers District.
1882                      Renamed National African Company Limited (N.A.C.) 
1886                      Renamed Royal Niger Company Chartered & Limited (R.N.C.) 
                            and was granted a Royal Charter by Britian allowing it 
                            to exploit and administer the region.
 1 Jan 1900               Charter revoked, incorporated into Southern Nigeria Protecotrate.

Senior Agent
1879 - 1882               David McIntosh                         (b. 1844 - d. 1888)
General Agents
1882 - 1888               David McIntosh                         (s.a.)
1888 -  1 Jan 1900        Joseph Flint                           (d. 1925)

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Lagos
                           to 16 Feb 1906
 6 Aug 1861                Lagos British colony as Lagos, but dynasty continues
                             (see under Nigerian traditional states)
                             (subordinated to Sierra Leone 1866-74,
                             and to the Gold Coast 1874-86).
19 Feb 1866 - 24 Jul 1874  Lagos settlements a territory of British West Africa.
24 Jul 1874                Part of Gold Coast Lagos colony.
13 Jan 1886                Lagos a separate colony.
18 Oct 1887                Lagos protectorate on hinterland.
16 Feb 1906                Lagos colony united with Southern Nigeria protectorate.

Governors
 6 Aug 1861 - 22 Jan 1862  William McCoskry (acting)
22 Jan 1862 - 1863         Henry Stanhope Freeman
1863 - 1864                W. R. Mullinar (acting)
1864 - 19 Feb 1866         John Hawley Glover                  (b. 1829 - d. 1885)
                            (acting to Apr 1865) 
Administrators
19 Feb 1866 - Feb 1866     Charles George Edward Patey         (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
Feb 1866 - 1870            John Halwey Glover                  (s.a.)
1870                       Miles Cooper (acting)
1870 - 1871                W.H. Simpson (acting)
1871 - 1872                J. Gerrard (acting)
1872                       Henry Fowler
1872 - 1873                George Berkeley                     (b. 1819 - d. 1905)
1873                       Charles Cameron Lees (1st time)     (b. 1831 - d. 1898)
                             (acting)
1873 - 1874                George Cumine Strahan               (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
1874 - 24 Jul 1874         John Shaw (acting)
24 Jul 1874 - 1875         Charles Cameron Lees (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1875 - 1878                John d'Arcy Dumaresq (acting)
1878                       F. Simpson  (acting)
1878                       Malcolm Brown (acting)
1878 - 1880                Cornelius Alfred Moloney (acting)   (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
Lieutenant-governors
1880                       William Brandford Griffith
1880 - 1883                C. D. Turton 
                           (administrator acting)
Deputy-governors
1883                       Corneilus Alfred Moloney (acting)   (s.a.)
1883                       Fred Evans
1883 - 1884                William Brandford Griffith
1884                       R. Murray Rumsey
1884 - 1885                R. Knapp Burrow
1885 - 13 Jan 1886         C. Pike
Governors
13 Jan 1886 - 1889         Cornelius Alfred Moloney            (s.a.)
                              (1st time)
1889 - 1890                George Denton (acting)
1890 - 1891                Sir Cornelius Alfred Moloney        (s.a.)
                              (2nd time) 
1891 - 1897                Sir Gilbert Carter                  (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
1897 - 1899                Henry Edward McCallum
1899 - 1902                Sir William MacGregor               (b. 1847 - d. 1919)
1902 - Aug 1904            Henry Reeve (acting to 1903)
Aug 1904 - 16 Feb 1906     Walter Egerton                      (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
                            (from 1905, Sir Walter Egerton) 

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Nigeria

Governor-general
 1 Jan 1914 -  8 Aug 1919  Frederick John Dealtry Lugard      (s.a.)
Governors
 8 Aug 1919 - 13 Nov 1925  Sir Hugh Charles Clifford          (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
13 Nov 1925 - 17 Jun 1931  Sir Graeme Thomson                 (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
17 Jun 1931 -  1 Nov 1935  Sir Donald Charles Cameron         (b. 1872 - d. 1948)
 1 Nov 1935 -  1 Jul 1940  Sir Bernard Henry Bourdillon       (b. 1883 - d. 1948)
 1 Jul 1940 - 1942         Sir John Evelyn Shuckburgh         (b. 1877 - d. 1953)
1942 - 18 Dec 1943         Sir Alan Cuthbert Maxwell Burns    (b. 1887 - d. 1980)
18 Dec 1943 -  5 Feb 1948  Sir Arthur Frederick Richards      (b. 1885 - d. 1978)
 5 Feb 1948 -  1 Oct 1954  Sir John Stuart Macpherson         (b. 1898 - d. 1971)
Governors-general
 1 Oct 1954 - 15 Jun 1955  Sir John Stuart Macpherson         (s.a.)
15 Jun 1955 - 16 Nov 1960  Sir James Wilson Robertson         (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
16 Nov 1960 -  1 Oct 1963  Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe            (b. 1904 - d. 1996)
President
 1 Oct 1963 - 16 Jan 1966  Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe            (s.a.)
Heads of the Federal Military Government
(from 24 May to 31 Aug 1966, National Military Government)
16 Jan 1966 - 29 Jul 1966  Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi              (b. 1924 - d. 1966) Military
 1 Aug 1966 - 29 Jul 1975  Yakubu Gowon                       (b. 1934)           Military
29 Jul 1975 - 13 Feb 1976  Murtala R. Muhammad                (b. 1917 - d. 1976) Military
14 Feb 1976 -  1 Oct 1979  Olusegun Obasanjo                  (b. 1937)
President
 1 Oct 1979 - 31 Dec 1983  Alhaji Shehu Shagari               (b. 1925)           NPN
Chairman of the Supreme Military Council
31 Dec 1983 - 27 Aug 1985  Mohammed Buhari                    (b. 1942)           Military
President and chairman of the Armed Forces Ruling Council 
(from 4 Jan 1993, president of the National Defense and Security Council)
27 Aug 1985 - 26 Aug 1993  Ibrahim Babangida                  (b. 1941)           Military
Interim president
26 Aug 1993 - 17 Nov 1993  Ernest Shonekan                    (b. 1936) 
Chairmen of the Provisional Ruling Council
17 Nov 1993 -  8 Jun 1998  Sani Abacha                        (b. 1943 - d. 1998) Military
 9 Jun 1998 - 29 May 1999  Abdulsalami Abubakar               (b. 1942)           Military 
President
29 May 1999 -              Olusegun Obasanjo                  (s.a.)              PDP

Chief ministers
May 1952 -  1 Oct 1954     Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe            (s.a.)
 1 Oct 1954 - 30 Aug 1957  see Nigerian Regions
Prime ministers
30 Aug 1957 - 15 Jan 1966  Abubakar Tafawa Balewa             (b. 1912 - d. 1966)  NPC
                            (from 1 Jan 1960, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa)
15 Jan 1966 - 17 Jan 1966  Mallam Dipchairina (acting)
15 Feb 1976 - 31 Dec 1983  Shehu Musa Yar Adua
bulletNigeria: Traditional States
 
bulletNigeria: Provinces and Regions 1916-1966
bulletNigeria: Federal states since 1976
Party abbreviations: AD =Alliance for Democracy (progressive); APP =All People's Party (conservative); PDP=People's Democratic Party (centrist); NPN = National Party of Nigerian; 
NPC =Northern People's Congress.

 

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Biafra



Biafra

[Flag of Biafra]
 
Map of Biafra
Hear National Anthem
"Land of the Rising Sun" 
Text of National Anthem
Independence Declaration
  (30 May 1967)

30 May 1967                Secession of Biafra from Nigeria (not internationally recognized).
12 Jan 1970                Reintegration Nigeria.

Presidents
30 May 1967 -  8 Jan 1970  Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu        (b. 1933)
 8 Jan 1970 - 12 Jan 1970  Philipp Effiong (acting)
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Republic of Benin

[Flag of Rep. of Benin, 1967]

 6 Aug 1967                Biafra occupied the Nigerian state of Mid-West.
20 Sep 1967                Reoccupied by Nigeria.
20 Sep 1967                Secession from Nigeria as Republic of Benin.
21 Sep 1967                Reincorporated into Nigeria.

Military Administrator
 6 Aug 1967 - 20 Sep 1967  Albert Okonkwo
President
20 Sep 1967 - 21 Sep 1967  Albert Okonkwo

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This page was last updated on 10/27/07.